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Capture, storage and reuse of CO₂

Technologies to capture, store and use carbon are gaining are a solution to the decarbonization, especially in hard-to-abate sectors such as cement, steel, chemical and paper mills etc., where a significant proportion of carbon dioxide emissions are linked to the industrial process and therefore cannot be avoided by renewables. In Italy the hard-to-abate sectors contribute to about 20% of total emissions and, to date, there are no viable technological alternatives to reduce their emissions. Collectively known as CCUS – Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage – these technologies prevent CO2 escaping into the atmosphere from many industrial processes, and either store it permanently in deep rock formations (CCS) or convert it into useful materials (CCU). Thanks to CCS and CCU technologies, CO2 can be transformed from a cost into an opportunity.  This is especially true for the energy industry, which has the technical and organisational expertise to implement such large-scale projects efficiently, quickly and safely. A positive aspect of storage is the possibility of reusing depleted gas fields and decommissioned assets, such as Eni UK’s which will be involved in the HyNet project, or those in the Ravenna offshore area, also owned by Eni.