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The state of the art of AI: advancements, challenges and future prospects

AI is not only about robots: It is in a search algorithm, in a chatbot, in IoT device or autonomous car. but where are we going now? Here is a short analysis focused on recent advancements and future prospects of Artificial Intelligence 



Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been a buzzword for the past few years, and it is not surprising why. AI has the potential to transform various aspects of our lives, from healthcare to transportation to education. The advancements in AI have been remarkable, and it is not an exaggeration to say that AI is at the forefront of technological innovation. In this article, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of AI, including recent advancements, challenges, and future prospects.


Recent advancements in AI


AI has made significant strides in recent years, thanks to the development of advanced machine learning algorithms, deep learning techniques, and neural networks. Some of the recent advancements in AI include:


  • Natural Language Processing (NLP)

NLP is a subfield of AI that deals with the interaction between computers and human language. Recent advancements in NLP have led to the development of chatbots, virtual assistants, and voice recognition software, which have made communication between humans and machines more natural and seamless.

An extremely interesting application of strong Artificial Intelligence has been proposed by a research group from the University of Bologna, which used a Deep Learning system for the first time to try to decipher a 3,500-year-old language: Minoan Cyprus. This language, widespread on the island of Cyprus in the Late Bronze Age, defied translators who tried to interpret it for more than a century, colliding with the lack of texts (just over two hundred) and the lack of bilingual works. Until today, in fact, scholars have not yet found a common ground on the number of characters in the alphabet of this language.

Researchers therefore used unsupervised learning techniques, in which the model develops hypotheses and conclusions without previous knowledge of the language and signs to be analysed. This gave birth to a real ad hoc model, called “Sign2Vecd”, trained to analyze and catalog not only the different signs of Minoan Cyprus, but also entire sequences of signs. The results outlined a vector representation for each sign that can be viewed in three dimensions, offering scholars the ability to identify any errors in the transcription of the signs.


credits: www.magazine.unibo.it


  • Computer Vision & Robotics 

Computer vision is a field of AI that deals with the ability of computers to interpret and understand visual information from the world around us. Recent advancements in computer vision have led to the development of facial recognition technology, object detection, and self-driving cars, among others. Speaking about Robotics, It is the field of AI that deals with the design, construction, and operation of robots. Recent advancements in robotics have led to the development of intelligent robots that can perform a wide range of tasks, from manufacturing to healthcare to space exploration.


About the use of AI for facial recognition, a new tool, called GFP-GAN (Generative Facial Prior-Generative Adversarial Network), has been developed to “fix” old portraits damaged by time, so that nothing is lost over the years. The result can be generated quickly by merging two AI models capable of “filling” the image with realistic details. As you can well imagine, the result generated by the AI ​​cannot be perfect and could involve a “slight change of identity”, but reviewing old photos in new life can prove interesting; it could even help elderly and memory-impaired people recall memories they hold dear.


Challenges facing AI


Despite the remarkable advancements in AI, there are still significant challenges that need to be addressed. Some of the most pressing challenges facing AI include:


  • Data Bias

Data bias is a significant challenge in AI, as it can lead to algorithms that perpetuate discrimination and inequality. This is particularly problematic in areas such as facial recognition technology, where biased data can lead to inaccurate identification and unjust consequences.


  • Ethical Concerns & Human – AI Collaboration 


AI raises several ethical concerns, such as privacy, autonomy, and accountability. For instance, the use of AI in decision-making processes, such as hiring or loan approvals, can lead to unfair outcomes if the algorithms are biased or flawed. As AI becomes more prevalent in various industries, it is essential to ensure that humans can collaborate with AI systems effectively. This requires developing user-friendly interfaces and designing AI systems that can explain their decisions and actions to humans.


“Restorative AI” is able to fix old portraits and collect memories.
Credits: HotpotAI



Future prospects of AI


The future of AI is exciting, with many possibilities for innovation and development. Some of the future prospects of AI include:


  • Healthcare & Education 

AI has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling personalized treatment plans, improving diagnosis accuracy, and accelerating drug discovery. But there’s more: It can also improve the education system by providing personalized learning experiences, automating administrative tasks, and facilitating remote learning.

At Maker Faire Rome several projects have strongly demonstrated, over the years, how AI is an increasingly effective tool for predicting serious diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In 2021, a Machine Learning project, developed by Giacomo Bornino, Marco Chierici, Venet Osmani, Antonio Colangelo, Giuseppe Jurman, has shown how AI technologies are really able to predict five comorbidities from 17,000 blood tests and 23 variables, none of which were currently used as diagnostic criteria. The results have been promising to facilitate the early diagnosis of complications of diabetes mellitus, one of the leading causes of death worldwide.



At Maker Faire Rome 2021 has been shown how AI can be use to predict Diabetes Mellitus.
Credits: makerfairerome.eu


  • Environment

AI can contribute to environmental sustainability by optimizing resource management, predicting natural disasters, and reducing carbon emissions.

At Maker Faire Rome 2022 the Sony CSL sustainability team has presented Robotics for Microfarms (ROMI), jointly developed by Iaac/FabLab Barcelona, a particular “calebot” developed to assist farmers during crop and harvest planning with the aim to reduce costs and increase productivity, thanks to a camera used to capture daily images of the plants and help predict when they will be ready to harvest and what portion of the space will be available for new plantings.


Robotics for Microfarms.
Credits: makerfairerome.eu I Sony CSL



The state of the art of AI is a fascinating and rapidly evolving field. Recent advancements in AI have led to the development of sophisticated algorithms and intelligent systems that have the potential to transform various aspects of our lives. However, there are still significant challenges that need to be addressed, such as data bias and ethical concerns. The future prospects of AI are exciting, with many possibilities for innovation and development in areas such as healthcare, education, and the environment. It is essential to continue investing in AI research and development to harness its full potential and ensure that it benefits society as a whole.



Maker Faire Rome – The European Edition has been committed since its very first editions to make innovation accessible and usable to all, with the aim of not leaving anyone behind. Its blog is always updated and full of opportunities and inspiration for makers, makers, startups, SMEs and all the curious ones who wish to enrich their knowledge and expand their business, in Italy and abroad.

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